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Walther J. (2003). In Defense of Zoos and Aquariums: The Ethical Basis for Keeping Wild Animals in Captivity. Maryland: American Veterinary Medical Association.

AVMA President-Elect and Doctor of veterinary medicine, Jack O. Walther, writer of In Defense of Zoos and Aquariums: The Ethical Basis for Keeping Wild Animals in Captivity, presents statistics stating that fewer than 10% of animal exhibitors are accredited by the American Zoo and Aquarium Association. The AZA is the only zoo/aquarium association in the world with an effective accreditation program that helps ensure quality animal care, a code of professional ethics that helps guide and regulate its members actions, and a dedicated conservation vision. With that knowledge, even that single fact is enough to show the lack of information visitors hold on the institutions they fund, since many believe that animal care inside of an aquarium is actually bettering these lives. Since this article was published by The American Veterinary Medical Association and presents valid statistics and information studied by doctors in this field, the intended audience would be aimed at anyone interested in the truth of animal captivity treatment, researchers directed towards studying the AZA, or doctors in the same or similar fields. The information is useful to these people because they can apply it to research they have already done about this topics or ones similar, making that argument stronger with statistics over the lack of protection of these animals in such a various amount of places.

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